Renal transplant patient care poses challenges such as maintaining a reasonable balance between efficacy and toxicity of immunosuppression. Different regimens of immune-suppressants are available and are determined by local protocols, aiming to address different levels of immunological risk. Owing to the narrow therapeutic index and large intra- and interpatient variability, drug monitoring of especially the calcineurin agents, continues to play an important role in the management of these patients.

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