1. Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA SCORE): Prediction of outcome in critically ill patients

    Various scoring systems have been developed since 1981 to be used in critically ill patients, and can broadly be categorized in two groups: those used to assess severity of illness and predict outcome and those assessing the presence and severity of organ dysfunction. Scoring systems which assess disease severity on admission are used to predict outcome, include the Acute Physiology and

  2. Vermaak and Partners Protocol for Dealing with Carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae

    The threat of multidrug resistant micro-organisms (MDR) is a constant one. Early recognition and prevention of horizontal transmission remains the cornerstone in the management of this threat. This threat has been magnified by the rise in carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE), specifically carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (CPE), which compromises the ability to treat serious infections caused by these micro-organisms.

  3. Die Toepassing van Massaspektrometrie in Diagnostiese Mikrobiologie: 'n Belangrike Deurbraak en Rewolusie in Tegnologie

    Sonder aanhoudende groei en vooruitgang sal begrippe soos verbetering, bereiking van ideale en sukses nie moontlik wees nie. Kliniese mikrobiologie is histories 'n konserwatiewe laboratorium bedryf waar basiese tegnologie wat reeds in die 19e eeu in gebruik geneem is, in wese grootliks onveranderd gebly het. Hoë- tegnologie massa spektrometrie (MS) het dit nou verander. Binne die bestek van enkele jare het die toepassing daarvan in mikrobiologiese diagnostiek gelei tot die mees innoverende metode vir die vinnige en onbetwisbare identifikasie van bakteriële spesies wat nou wêreldwyd deur kliniese mikrobiologie laboratoria aangegryp word. Ons beskou onsself as bevoorreg om die eerste patologie laboratorium in Gauteng te wees om hierdie benadering te implementeer tot voordeel van kwaliteit, omdraaityd en koste doetreffendheid wat tot voordeel van beide pasiënt en gesondheidswerker sal strek.

  4. Malaria: history and diagnosis

    Malaria predates humanity and is likely to have been a parasite of humans for the entire history of our species. As such it has presented a severe and sustained challenge to human health since the dawn of civilisation. Particularly when humans moved from a hunter-gatherer existence to an agriculture-based one, malaria began to have a major impact on human survival. Coupled with the fact that malaria has for most of its existence been a global disease, the effect on human populations has been profound.

  5. The evaluation of an unexpected high serum calcium concentration

    Laboratory reports of elevated serum calcium concentrations are relatively common in both hospitalized patient and outpatient settings. The distinction between measurements likely to cause symptoms requiring correction from those that are benign, poses a challenge to the physician. The purpose of this issue of Pat-Langs is to review the most common causes of hypercalcaemia, and to provide guidelines for the follow-up of a patient with an unexpected finding of a raised serum calcium concentration.

  6. Patlangs newsletter April 2011 Afrikaans

    'n Testosteroongebrek kan verskeie oorsake hê en mag mans van alle ouderdomme beïnvloed. By middeljarige en ouer mans word na testosteroongebrek verwys as androgeen gebreksindroom van die verouderende man, testosteroon gebreksindroom (TGS), of laat-aanvangs hipogonadisme. Die Endokriene Vereniging (VSA) definieer manlike hipogonadisme as 'n kliniese sindroom wat voortvloei uit die onvermoë van die testes om fisiologiese vlakke van testosteroon en die normale aantal spermatozoa te produseer a.g.v. ontwrigting van een of meer vlakke van die hipotalamus-pituïtêre klier -testes aksis.

  7. Patlangs newsletter April 2011 English

    Testosterone deficiency can result from many causes and may affect men of all ages. In middle-aged and elderly men the disorder is referred to as androgen deficiency of the aging male (ADAM), testosterone deficiency syndrome (TDS), or late-onset hypogonadism (LOH). The Endocrine Society (USA) defines male hypogonadism as a clinical syndrome resulting from failure of the testis to produce physiological levels of testosterone (androgen deficiency) and a normal number of spermatozoa due to disruption of one or more levels of the hypothalamic-pituitary-testicular axis.

  8. Patlangs newsletter Julie 2011 Afrikaans

    Sputum vir mikroskopie, kultuur en sensitiwiteit (MK&S) is een van die mees algemene ondersoeke wat die mikrobiologie laboratorium uitvoer. Dit is egter nie verrasend nie want lugweginfeksies is relatief algemeen en word dikwels gevind in die praktyk. Die uithoes (ekspektoreer) van sputum word nog altyd beskou as 'n logiese keuse vir die diagnose vir vanselfsprekende redes, omdat dit relatief maklik verkrygbaaris, nie indringend is nie, en sonder veel risiko vir die pasient is.

  9. Patlangs newsletter January 2012

    The scourge of HIV continues to mount in South Africa despite efforts to control the epidemic. This places an enormous financial, social and economic burden on government, health care providers, families and household as well as societies and communities. According to UNAIDS estimates in 2008, more than 33 million people are living with HIV, and approximately 2.7 million new infections arise every year. Of these 22.4 million people are living in sub Saharan Africa.

  10. Patlangs newsletter July 2011 English

    Sputum for Microscopy, Culture and Sensitivity (MC&S) is one of the commonest investigations processed by most microbiology laboratories. This is not surprising, since Lower Respiratory Tract Infection (LRTI) is a relatively common infectious disease suspected or encountered in clinical practice, and expectorated sputum has always seemed to be a logical choice as a diagnostic specimen, for obvious reasons: it is relatively easily obtainable, non-invasive and therefore procured without any risk to the patient.