1. Immunosuppressant drugs and renal transplant: Practical considerations for the use of tacrolimus

    Renal transplant patient care poses challenges such as maintaining a reasonable balance between efficacy and toxicity of immunosuppression. Different regimens of immune-suppressants are available and are determined by local protocols, aiming to address different levels of immunological risk. Owing to the narrow therapeutic index and large intra- and interpatient variability, drug monitoring of especially the calcineurin agents, continues to play an important role in the management of these patients.

  2. Coeliac disease

    Gluten related disorders can be classified according to pathogenesis: Autoimmune disease (Coeliac disease, dermatitis herpetiformis, gluten ataxia), non autoimmune disease (related to gluten sensitivity) and allergic disease (wheat allergy).

  3. Whooping Cough Bordetella pertussis: Resurgence of an Old Disease - Facts in 2016

    Whooping cough is an acute, highly contagious respiratory disease with a significant incidence of mortality in children under 5 years of age. Certain dogmas previously held concerning the disease incidence, clinical presentation, diagnosis and prevention need to be revisited as new concepts concerning the disease now hold true.

  4. Evolution and the molecular basis of psychiatric illness

    Uncovering the molecular pathology and biochemistry of mental health disease is currently one of the major challenges of modern medicine. For the primary psychotic, mood and anxiety disorders there are no diagnostic pathology tests, an understanding of the pathophysiology is often rudimentary and the molecular pathology largely unknown. There are many reasons for this but perhaps the most significant is that mental health illnesses do not lend themselves to enquiry in the same way as other disorders.

  5. Clostridium difficile laboratory diagnostics – update and implications of testing

    C. difficile associated diarrhoea (CDAD) remains a problematic infection typically associated with hospitalization and prior antimicrobial use. The global epidemiology of CDAD is a changing landscape and is complicated by issues surrounding accurate diagnosis . There are many diagnostic assays available ranging from enzyme immunoassays (EIA) to nucleic acid amplification tests (NAAT), however the gold standard tests (cell cytotoxin assay and cytotoxigenic culture) for diagnosis are rarely utilized due to the complex nature and prolonged turnaround times of these assays.


    Blood samples are referred to the clinical laboratory by general practitioners and specialists alike, with the purpose of identifying possible monoclonal proteins in the serum sample. Often monoclonal bands are reported, but, after a full work-up patients do not fulfil the criteria of multiple myeloma.


    Bloedmonsters word deur beide algemene praktisyns en spesialiste na die kliniese laboratorium verwys, met die doel om moontlike monoklonale proteine in serum aan te toon. Monoklonale bande word dikwels  erapporteer maar na 'n volledige uitwerk van die pasiënt word daar nie voldoen aan die kriteria vir meervoudige miëloom nie.

  8. Die waarde van bepaling van Minimum Inhibitoriese Konsentrasie (MIK) Bepalings in Mikrobiologiese Sensitiwiteitstoetsing - Dr Warren Lowman

    Tradisionele rapportering van antimikrobiese sensitiwiteitstoetse (AST) aan klinici was basseer op die kliniese interpretasie afsnypunte van die organisme en die betrokke antibiotika en dit was in die vorm van S = sensitief, I = intermedier, R = resistant (weerstandig).